Acne and acneiform eruptions during pregnancy need special attention. The physician should be aware of the special condition of a pregnant patient. Acne treatments may aim to prevent worsening, secondary infections, scarring and lowering self-esteem of the mother. However, the treatment of acne and acneiform eruptions are not easy to treat during pregnancy. First, because many cosmetics and procedures are not tested on pregnant patients and it is impossible to predict the possible consequences of the procedures on fetus, many women quit cosmetic procedures during pregnancy. Second, the underlying conditions such as hormonal influx and immunosuppression continue. Third, the medications for acne have limitations due to the lack of evidence of safety during pregnancy. Here, a acneiform eruptions during pregnancy, including acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, perioral dermatitis, and hidradenitis suppurativa, are reviewed focusing on these points and each of them is evaluated by clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment options focusing on maternal and fetal safety.
Part of the book: Acne and Acneiform Eruptions
Chronic urticaria (CU), one of the most frequent skin disorders, is defined as the repeated occurrence of red, swollen, itchy and sometimes painful hives (wheals), and/or angioedema (swellings in the deeper layers of the skin), for more than 6 weeks [1, 2]. CU has an estimated worldwide prevalence of approximately 1% , which includes spontaneous and inducible types. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), the most common type of CU, symptoms occur without a specific trigger [1, 3]. In contrast, in chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU), symptoms occur in response to specific stimuli, such as exposure to cold, heat or pressure . Patients may suffer from CSU and CIndU in parallel . Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as the repeated occurrence of red, swollen, itchy and sometimes painful wheals, and/or angioedema, for more than 6 weeks. CU includes spontaneous and inducible types. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), the most common type of CU, symptoms occur without a specific trigger. Treatment of urticaria and/or angioedema mainly consist of antihistamines, short courses of corticosteroids, other immunosuppressive, and anti‐inflammatory agents. Angioedema is a deeper expression of urticaria which is classified by allergic, hereditary, acquired, and angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)‐induced forms.
Part of the book: Urticaria and Angioedema