Osteosarcoma has a complex genetic background, and the response to treatments varies among patients. Induction chemotherapy has substantially improved the clinical outcome of osteosarcoma. Currently, there is no practical predictive modality in clinical settings, and therefore, uniform chemotherapy is applied for all patients. However, since the response to induction chemotherapy considerably influences the prognosis, the therapeutic strategy should be optimized for each patient before initiating treatments. Therefore, identification and establishment of predictive biomarkers for induction chemotherapy have been a long-standing goal in osteosarcoma research. Because of the complex genetic traits associated with osteosarcoma, adoption of an omics approach for global gene expression is attractive in the search for predictive biomarkers, and omics technologies have recently been applied to the development of predictive biomarkers in malignancies, including osteosarcoma. Global studies have been performed at the genome, transcriptome, and proteome levels in osteosarcoma, and various candidate biomarkers have been reported using clinical specimens. Further investigation of the clinical utilities of these identified predictive biomarkers will be merited through validation and verification studies.
Part of the book: Osteosarcoma