Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a rare disease characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium, primarily involving the right ventricle (RV). The structural changes in the ventricular myocardium form a substrate for ventricular arrhythmia ranging from premature ventricular complexes to ventricular tachycardia typically of RV origin and may result in RV failure and progress to congestive heart failure at a later stage. ARVC/D is a recognized cause of sudden cardiac death in young people, but it may occur at any age. With the discovery of underlying pathogenic mutations involved in the disease development and insight from long‐term follow‐up of ARVC/D patients, ARVC/D is an inherited cardiomyopathy. Mutations in at least eight genes have been involved in ARVC/D genesis in 30–50% of patients. Most of these genes are involved in the function of desmosomes, which are structures that attach heart muscle cells to one another. Desmosomes provide strength to the myocardium and play a role in signaling between neighboring cells. Mutations in the genes responsible for ARVC/D often impair the normal desmosomal function. There has been significant advancement in the diagnosis and management of ARVC/D in the past few decades. This chapter provides an overview of ARVC/D pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management.
Part of the book: Cardiomyopathies
Arrhythmias are common after cardiac surgery such as coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Although most of these arrhythmias are transient and have a benign course, it may represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Postoperative arrhythmias (POAs) include atrial tachyarrhythmias, ventricular arrhythmias, and bradyarrhythmias. The incidence of POAs has not changed despite improvements in anesthetic and surgical techniques. The tachyarrhythmias in the postoperative period include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia. The clinical significance of each arrhythmia depends on several factors that include cardiac function, patient’s comorbidities, arrhythmia duration, and ventricular response rate. Tachycardia with uncontrolled ventricular rates can cause diastolic and later on systolic dysfunction, reduce cardiac output, and result in hypotension or myocardial ischemia. In the other hand, bradyarrhythmias may have a remarkable influence on patients with systolic or diastolic ventricular dysfunction. Arrhythmia management starts preoperatively with optimizing the patient’s condition and controlling patient’s risk factors, intra-operatively with careful attention to hemodynamic changes during surgery and uses appropriate anesthesia, and postoperatively with correction of temporary and correctable predisposing factors, as well as specific therapy for the arrhythmia itself. The POAs treatment urgency and management options are determined by the clinical presentation of the arrhythmia.
Part of the book: Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery