The increase in life expectancy leads to the possibility of development chronic diseases, from special physiological conditions as occurs in the menopause, which is defined as the permanent cessation of ovulation, marked by the end of menstruation. It has been related to decreased ovarian function that occurs around an age of 45 years. This event involves the reduction in estrogen production and may contribute to the development of chronic-degenerative diseases. Many diseases developed during menopause have been associated with oxidative stress, such as osteoporosis, hot flushes, cognitive impairment, insulin resistance, dry skin, obesity, and cardiovascular events. The knowledge about the participation of Nrf2 in diseases that occur during menopause is very limited. Here, only diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and dry skin, which are present during menopause and its later stages have been described. The Nrf2 pathway involves the participation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and eNOS, which act as mediators for cytoprotection and antioxidation. Compounds such as equol, fitoestrogens, alkyl cathecols, or curcumin could be offered as options to antioxidant treatment, added the fact that they are present in fruits and vegetables which are rich in vitamins, minerals and calcium, thus including all the required nutrients for an adequate nutrition.
Part of the book: The Transcription Factor Nrf2
Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation, and among the main symptoms reported have been night sweats, heat waves, increased body fat at the central level, dyslipidemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, insulin resistance, diabetes, mild cognitive impairment, depression, periodontitis, varicose veins, apnea, urinary genital discomfort, as well as dryness in the mouth and eye. The diagnosis, study, and care of menopausal or postmenopausal women have had great advances, such as recognizing the sub-inclusion of women and female animal models in basic and clinical studies and proposing in the same design of the study the analysis by sex. Subsequently, the need for specialized ethical training was identified, beginning in undergraduate, postgraduate, and clinical practice. To achieve this, several actions were carried out, such as the foundation of Women’s Health Institutes, the implementation of the Institutional and Private Committees of Ethic, and the development of validated instruments to evaluate signs and symptoms. Currently, there is no consensus that meets the ethical requirements for care and research in these patients. Efforts have been made practically by pathology, without considering together the social and psychobiological condition. What is intended in this document is to present the ethical aspects related to the study and medical care of women in menopause.
Part of the book: Reflections on Bioethics