Terahertz time‐domain spectroscopy is a well‐established technique to study the far‐infrared electromagnetic response of materials. Measurements are broadband, fast, and performed at room temperature. Moreover, compact systems are nowadays commercially available, which can be operated by nonspecialist staff. Thanks to the determination of the amplitude and phase of the recorded signals, both refractive index and absorption coefficient of the sample material can be obtained. However, determining these electromagnetic parameters should be performed cautiously when samples are more or less transparent. In this chapter, we explain how to extract the material parameters from terahertz time‐domain data. We list the main sources of error, and their contribution to uncertainties. We give rules to select the most adapted technique for an optimized characterization, depending on the transparency of the samples, and address the case of samples with strong absorption peaks or exhibiting scattering.
Part of the book: Terahertz Spectroscopy