It is well known that constitutive parameters, namely, the electrical permittivity, ε, and the magnetic permeability, μ, in a medium determine the response and reaction of such medium or material when exposed to external time-varying electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, most materials are lossy and dispersive, that is, both permittivity and permeability are complex and frequency-dependent. Interestingly, by controlling the sign of real parts of ε and μ in a medium, unique electromagnetic properties can be achieved that are not readily available in nature. Recently, subwavelength composite engineered structures, also known as metamaterials, have evolved in many engineering and optical applications, due to their unique electromagnetic properties that are not found in nature, including but not limited to negative refractive index, backward wave propagation, subwavelength focusing and super lenses, and invisibility cloaking. The main aims of this chapter are to provide an overview of electromagnetic field behavior and interaction with metamaterials and to explore such behavior in various metamaterials both analytically and numerically.
Part of the book: Electromagnetic Fields and Waves