Tunable microwave devices have the benefits of added functionality, smaller form factor, lower cost, and lightweight, and are in great demand for future communications and radar applications as they can extend the operation over a wide dynamic range. Current tunable technologies include several schemes such as ferrites, semiconductors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and ferroelectric thin films. While each technology has its own pros and cons, ferroelectric thin film-based technology has proved itself as the potential candidate for tunable devices due to its simple processes, low power consumption, high power handling, small size, and fast tuning. A tunable Composite Right Left-Handed Zeroth Order Resonator (CRLH ZOR) is introduced in this chapter and it relies mainly on the latest advancement in the ferroelectric materials. It is common that for achieving optimum performance for the resonant structure, this involves the incorporation of an additional tuning by either mechanical means (i.e. with tuning screws) or other coupling mechanisms. The integration between electronic tuning and High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) components yields a high system performance without degradation of efficiency. This leads not only low-loss microwave components that could be fine-tuned for maximum efficiency but will provide a tunable device over a broadband frequency spectrum as well. The dielectric properties of the ferroelectric thin film, and the thickness of the ferroelectric film, play a fundamental role in the frequency or phase tunability and the overall insertion loss of the circuit. The key advantages of using ferroelectric are the potential for significant size-reduction of the microwave components and systems and the cabibility for integration with microelectronic circuits due to the utilization of thin and thick ferroelectric film technology. In this chapter, ZOR is discussed and the conceptual operation is introduced. The ZOR is designed and simulated by the full-wave analysis software. The response is studied using electromagnetic characteristics with the applied electric field, ferroelectric thickness, and the operating temperature.
Part of the book: Multifunctional Ferroelectric Materials