Despite the many advantages for patients, laparoscopic surgery entails certain ergonomic inconveniences for surgeons, which may result in decreasing the surgeons’ performance and musculoskeletal disorders. In this chapter, the current status of ergonomics in laparoscopy, laparoendoscopic single‐site surgery (LESS), and robot‐assisted surgery will be reviewed. Ergonomic guidelines for laparoscopic surgical practice and methods for ergonomic assessment in surgery will be described. Results will be based on the scientific literature and our experience. Results showed that the surgeon's posture during laparoscopic surgery is mainly affected by the static body postures, the height of the operating table, the design of the surgical instruments, the position of the main screen, and the use of foot pedals. Ergonomics during the laparoscopic surgical practice is related to the level of experience. Better ergonomic conditions entail an improvement in task performance. Laparoscopic instruments with axial handle lead to a more ergonomic posture for the wrist compared to a ring handle. LESS is physically more demanding than conventional and hybrid approaches, requiring greater level of muscular activity in the back and arm muscles, but better wrist position compared with traditional laparoscopy. Physical and cognitive ergonomics with robotic assistance were significantly less challenging when compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery.
Part of the book: Laparoscopic Surgery
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Surgery is the only viable treatment, but irradical resection rates are still high. Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery has some technical limitations for surgeons and tumor identification may be challenging. Image-guided techniques provide intraoperative margin assessment and visualization methods, which may be advantageous in guiding the surgeon to achieve curative resections and therefore improve the surgical outcomes. In this chapter, current available laparoscopic surgical approaches and image-guided techniques for pancreatic surgery are reviewed. Surgical outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy performed by laparoscopy, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS), and robotic surgery are included and analyzed. Besides, image-guided techniques such as intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging and surgical navigation are presented as emerging techniques. Results show that minimally invasive procedures reported a reduction of blood loss, reduced length of hospital stay, and positive resection margins, as well as an improvement in spleen-preserving rates, when compared to open surgery. Studies reported that fluorescence-guided pancreatic surgery might be beneficial in cases where the pancreatic anatomy is difficult to identify. The first approach of a surgical navigation system for guidance during pancreatic resection procedures is presented, combining preoperative images (CT and MRI) with intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasound imaging.
Part of the book: Laparoscopic Surgery
Despite the well-known benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to the patients, this surgical technique implies some technical challenges for surgeons. These technical limitations are increased with the introduction of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery. In order to overcome some of these technical difficulties, new handheld devices have been developed, providing improved functionalities along with precision-driven and articulating instrument tips. In this chapter, we will review the current status of handheld devices for laparoscopy and LESS surgery. Devices that provide additional and innovative functionalities in comparison with conventional surgical instruments will be considered. Results will be based on studies published in the scientific literature and our experience. These surgical devices will be organized into two main groups, mechanical devices and robotic-driven devices. In general, these instruments intend to simulate the dexterity of movements of a human wrist. Mechanical devices are cheaper and easier to develop, so most of the available handheld instruments fall into this category. The majority of the robotic-driven devices are needle holders with an articulating tip, controlled by an interface implemented on the instrument handle. In general, these handheld devices claim to offer an enhancement of dexterity, precision, and ergonomics.
Part of the book: New Horizons in Laparoscopic Surgery