Classification of primary brain tumors is based mainly on histopathological characteristics. Due to the peculiarity of the central nervous system (CNS), the location of the tumor is also used in the naming of the CNS tumors. These features, histopathology, and location determine the main prognostic factors in these tumors. Updated molecular and genetic findings in the last two decades accumulated vast amount of knowledge about the biological behavior, response to the treatment, and consequently the prognosis of CNS tumors. After the clinical use of these data, a recent classification is proposed by the International Society of Neuropathology named as “integrated diagnosis.”
Part of the book: Neurooncology
The first laparoscopic procedure was performed by 1901 by Georg Kelling in dogs while the first laparoscopic procedure in humans was performed by Hans Chrisitan Jacobaeus in 1910. Minimally invasive surgery offers multiple advantages over conventional laparotomy and is associated with reduced estimated blood loss, a lower incidence of complications and a shorter hospital stay and recovery. Over a century later, the vast majority of surgical procedures in gynecology are performed via minimal invasive technique. These include laparoscopy, minilaparoscopy, robotic surgery, laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) and natural orifices transluminal endoscopic surgery. In this chapter we review these surgical techniques, analyze the main differences among these techniques and comment on their advantages and disadvantages.
Part of the book: Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery