Marine Polysaccharides in Medicine
About 70% of the Earth's surface is covered with seawater and 90% biosphere wraps maximum biodiversity that offers resourceful novel bio‐molecules. Marine species are enriched with organic compounds viz. terpenoids, polyethers/ketides, lipo‐glycoproteins, peptides and polysaccharides that act as cell surface receptors and involve in cell development/differentiation, besides being antimicrobial agents. Algae, sponge and fish have various defense mechanisms developed via specific/potent natural molecules to survive under hostile, extreme conditions such as various degrees of salinity, pressure, temperature, darkness, besides microbial and viral attacks. Marine seaweeds and algae enriched with polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans, agar, alginate and chitin/chitosan owing to their diversified significance have received growing attention among researchers. Currently, marine‐derived biomolecules cater 20% market drug load while other natural products bear 30% share. Chitins exhibit various biological and physicochemical properties that can be exploited in biotechnology and medicine/drug, cosmetic, food and textile industries. This chapter focuses on chitin/chitosan production, its physicochemical characterization and biological activities and relationship between its chemical structure and bio‐activity, including chemical modification reactions such as acylation, substitution, sulfonation and other cross‐linking strategies applied to skeletal modification with the recently updated literature.
Part of the book: Biological Activities and Application of Marine Polysaccharides
Rationally Fabricated Nanomaterials for Desalination and Water Purification
Rationally designed nanomaterials from synthetic/biopolymers like chitosan, zeolites, graphene, nanometal/oxides, zerovalent metal/magnetic iron, OMS and nanocarbon/carbon nanotube (CNT) utilized in desalination/purification are thoroughly discussed. Conventional desalination membrane/materials own inherent limitations; nevertheless, designed nanocomposite/hybrid/films address the new challenges/constraints and consequently aid the remediation of environmental/water pollution, thus denoting prospective nanotechnology/science. The morphology and chemical functionality of certain natural/synthetic polymers are altered/controlled rationally yielding advanced membranes/materials, for example, aquaporin, nanochannels, graphene and smart self-assemble block copolymer blends to cater futuristic desalination needs besides superseded conventional membrane limitations too. In a nut shell, advance nanotechnology via electrospinning, track-etching, phase inversion and interfacial polymerization yields structured composites/matrixes that conquer traditional barriers of conventional desalination and supplies treated/purified water. This review confers synthetic strategy and utility of nanomaterials that are procured via ordered/rational designing/self-assembly to be used in separation techniques including RO/FO antifouling membrane, superwet surface, oil-water/emulsion separation and multifunctional desalination nanodevices.
Part of the book: Novel Nanomaterials
Chitosan-Derived Synthetic Ion Exchangers: Characteristics and Applications
Today growing science and technological needs explored various biopolymers to procure novel utilities in its modern developments. Consequently, polysaccharides embraced huge prospective and vastly caters such desired growing needs. Amid, chitin the second most ubiquitous after cellulose comprise of β-[1,4]-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose flexible skeleton undergo alteration for requisite physico-chemical features and its highly sophisticated utility superseded counterpart cellulose. Chitosan have unique parameters namely bio-compatibility, non-toxicity, hemeostaticity, anti-microbials which offer competent solutions of many challenging problems. Thus, many products namely biomarkers, biosensors, quantum dots are fabricated via adoptable productive chitosan matrixes. Advancement in chitosan chemistry proffers unambiguous industrial utility in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nanobiotechnology, water purifications etc. Chitosan composites own enhanced muco-adhesivity that aids pharmacological safe and successful DNA/SiRNA/tissue releases with bioavailability at target specific carriers. ZnO, ZnS, TiO2 filled/imposed in chitosan and resultant hybrids, quantum dots, surface active microcapsules and nanoparticles are used as biosensors, bio-markers, adsorbents that proffers revolutionary medical usage. Nanointegrated chitosan own complementary strengths and possess assorted utility namely nano-electronic high-resolution devices, for in-vivo imaging, diseases diagnosis, generating new therapeutic and smart tissue engineering scaffolds. Novel modalities with innovative formulations are skillfully designed via chitosan matrix for myriad benefit in biology, chemistry, polymer, and pharmaceutics are displayed in this chapter.
Part of the book: New Trends in Ion Exchange Studies
Chitosan Formulations: Chemistry, Characteristics and Contextual Adsorption in Unambiguous Modernization of S&TView all chapters
Since long scientists explored natural/bio-polymers to explicit their innate features to develop certain novel utilities in modernization of prevalent Science & Technology. Consequently biotope derived polysaccharide embrace huge prospective desired functions. Amid, chitosan, the second most ubiquitous polymer after cellulose exists as a β-(1–4)-linked d-glucosamine/N-acetyl-d-glucosamine randomly distributed linear polycationic yield from partial deacetylation of chitin polysaccharide. Chitin’s complexity limits its extraction/insolubility in aqueous solution, thus less studied/research until 1980s. As major polysaccharides are either neutral/negatively charged in an acidic environment, instead chitosan is cationic, eventually forms electrostatic complexes/multilayer structures/composites with anionic synthetic dopants/natural polymers. Chitosan own biocompatibility, non-toxicity, low allergy and biodegradability allow utility as in water treatment, wound-healing, pharmaceutical excipient/drug carrier, obesity treatment and scaffold for tissue engineering. It is reflected in the increasing number of related publications throughout in biomedical, environmental and industrials applications. Feeble chitosan solubility limits their applications, yet benign synthetic techniques viz.; sol-gel, encapsulation, chemical grafting are employed to yield composites/hydrogels/films/granules which generates new functionality, besides enhanced biocompatibility and biodegradability. This chapter presents the R&D, trends and the latest prospects involved in advance synthesis of chitosan supported composites/hydrogels/films/granules/sheets with special highlighted pharmaceutical/biomedical and environmental applications.
Part of the book: Hysteresis of Composites