Ionic liquids (ILs) have gained significant attention within the academic and industrial circle owing to their attractive and unique characters. However, the usual green image of the ionic liquids mainly associated with their low vapour pressure has become increasingly doubtful. Several recent studies have highlighted the underestimated ILs toxicity which has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, improving the understanding of the ionic liquids toxicity towards aquatic organisms will undoubtedly lead to formulation of right solutions to address the toxicity problem hence contributing towards the development of green and sustainable ILs‐based technology. The chapter provides a collective review of studies conducted on the effect of ILs structure on toxicity, specifically focussing on the various types of cations and anions, and the length of the alkyl chain attached. Based on the qualitative outcome from the review, a discussion on the development of statistical modelling on the impact of ILs structural features towards the overall toxicity is presented. The application of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for developing the predictive model for toxicity is highlighted.
Part of the book: Ionic Liquids