High performance computing centres consume substantial amounts of energy to power large-scale supercomputers and the necessary building and cooling infrastructure. Recently, considerable performance gains resulted predominantly from developments in multi-core, many-core and accelerator technology. Computing centres rapidly adopted this hardware to serve the increasing demand for computational power. However, further performance increases in large-scale computing systems are limited by the aggregate energy budget required to operate them. Power consumption has become a major cost factor for computing centres. Furthermore, energy consumption results in carbon dioxide emissions, a hazard for the environment and public health; and heat, which reduces the reliability and lifetime of hardware components. Energy efficiency is therefore crucial in high performance computing.
Part of the book: ICT - Energy Concepts for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability