First human and canine cases as well as presence of competent Phlebotomine fly vectors are reported for the first time in Slovenia. Number of infected dogs in Slovenia has been increasing in the last few years. Having increased number of infected dogs and a presence of proven Phlebotomine fly vectors at the same time in a climatically suitable region may lead to endemic spread of the disease. And that is the kind of situation calling for governmental regulation. Basic preparedness and rapid response mechanisms should be in place. Leishmaniasis cases should be detected early and reaction should be quick. In epidemic-prone areas and before the anticipated outbreak season, the responsibilities of the outbreak task force members should be defined; the necessary needs for response, surveillance, and control should be assessed; the surveillance system should be reinforced; criteria for epidemic alert should be set up; and all health facilities should be provided with minimum stocks of basic diagnostic and treatment supplies. Successful preventive measures should include regular veterinary checks of all imported dogs and dogs traveling outside the country, vector control, use of effective repellents, sleeping indoors with nets on the windows, and antileishmanial vaccination of dogs.
Part of the book: The Epidemiology and Ecology of Leishmaniasis