Severe respiratory failure may develop in the trauma patient as a consequence of direct lung injury, in response to trauma‐associated systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), as a result of infection, or at times as an unintended consequence of the life‐saving management of the acute traumatic injury. Approximately 0.5% of all adult trauma patients develop some form of pulmonary dysfunction along the acute lung injury (ALI) – acute respiratory distress (ARDS) spectrum, with the incidence of severe respiratory failure reaching 10–20% in multisystem trauma victims. Of concern, mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure who go on to develop severe pulmonary dysfunction can be as high as 37–50% with the use of conventional therapeutic modalities. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been proposed as a rescue strategy when less invasive primary or adjunctive attempts fail. Numerous case reports and single‐center studies demonstrate potential benefits of early implementation of veno‐venous (VV)‐ECMO for the treatment of severe respiratory failure associated with trauma or sequelae of trauma. In this clinical context, VV‐ECMO can be employed to correct for both ventilatory and oxygenation failure while allowing the treating physician to provide much needed rest to the patient's lungs and permit healing to take place. The use of ECMO (mainly veno‐venous, with limited use of veno‐arterial circuits for cardiac indications) has been described in patients with severe chest injuries, traumatic pneumonectomy, bronchopleural fistulas, and various forms of respiratory failure refractory to conventional therapies.
Part of the book: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Each year, thousands of people worldwide succumb to end-organ failure while awaiting life-saving transplantation procedures. The shortage of organs continues with no signs of easing in the foreseeable future. The availability of organs from living donors continues to be constrained. At the same time, the cumulative knowledge of organ preservation is advancing steadily resulting in an enhanced ability to utilize a growing number of previously unsuitable tissue and organ gifts. Our ability to procure and preserve more organs is accompanied by the increasing use of so-called “expanded criteria” donors, or those whose organs may not have been suitable without modern advances in organ preservation science. Within the overall context of organ donation from non-living donors, the importance of physiologic and end-organ optimization cannot be understated. This chapter discusses our current state of understanding of optimized organ procurement approaches derived from practical experiences and “lessons learned” at a high-performing, community-based tertiary referral hospital.
Part of the book: Organ Donation and Transplantation