The bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals play an important role in the toxicity of heavy metals in the final compost followed by land application. This chapter examines the effects of natural zeolite on bioavailability of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) in the form of water soluble and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was performed to examine the leachability of heavy metals. Water solubility, DTPA extractability, leachability, and most bioavailable fractions were reduced during agitated pile composting (APC) and rotary drum composting (RDC) of water hyacinth with zeolite addition. The addition of the natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) during the composting process led to an increase in Na, Ca, and K concentrations and significantly reduced the water solubility and DTPA and TCLP extractability of heavy metals. The addition of an appropriate amount of natural zeolite during the composting process enhanced the organic matter degradation, thereby increasing the conversion into the most stabilized organic matter and reducing the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals.
Part of the book: Zeolites