A study was carried out to determine the accumulation of trace metals in water, sediments, and soil from several locations in the Transylvania region (Romania), using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP‐MS) technique. A significant number of metals (range of several μg L−1) were identified, the toxic metal concentrations in mostly of the investigated waters being within the permissible limits. A seasonal variation in the metal content was also observed. Comparison of the metal concentrations to samples of sediment, soil, and vegetation coming from the surrounding areas of the same water reservoir revealed a higher accumulation of rare and toxic metals in sediments than in soil and vegetation.
Part of the book: Water Quality
Polyphenols play an important role in the quality of wines, due to their contribution to the wine sensory properties: color, astringency and bitterness. They act as antioxidants, having positive role in human health. They can be divided into non-flavonoid (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and stilbenes) and flavonoid compounds (anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols). Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids act as copigments, stilbenes as antioxidants and the flavan-3-ols are mainly responsible for the astringency, bitterness and structure of wines, being involved also in the color stabilization during aging. This chapter will focus on the chemical structures of the main polyphenols, their identification and quantification in grapes and wines by advanced analytical techniques, highlighting also the maceration and aging impact on the polyphenols evolution. The factors influencing the phenolic accumulation in grapes are also reviewed, emphasizing as well the relationship between phenolic content in grapes versus wine. Polyphenolic changes during the wine making process are highlighted along with the main polyphenol extraction methods and analysis techniques. This research will contribute to the improvement in the knowledge of polyphenols: their presence in grapes, the relationship with wine quality and the influence of the external factors on their evolution.
Part of the book: Grapes and Wines