Grapevine is one of the most abundant crops worldwide, with varieties destined for fresh and dry consumption, as well as wine production. Unfortunately, grapevine plants are affected by both biotic and abiotic stresses, generating significant economic losses. These conditions can negatively impact grape cultivation at different stages: plant and berry development during pre- and post-harvest, production, fresh fruit processing and export, along with wine quality. Most of the grapevine varieties are susceptible to several pathogens and within this chapter, particular attention is given to fungi (Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator) and viruses, since they are a worldwide concern. Within the latter, special focus is given to the grapevine leafroll disease, a complex and destructive infection. On the other hand, abiotic stress is also relevant in grapevine, and in this chapter it will be exemplified by UV-B radiation and its impact on growth and fruit development, plant adaptive responses and its relationship with the quality of grape berries for winemaking. The main biotic and abiotic grapevine stress factors are reviewed in this chapter, considering a special focus on biotechnological approaches carried out in order to address them and minimize their detrimental consequences.
Part of the book: Grape and Wine Biotechnology