Livestock and climate change are interlinked through a complex mechanism and serve the role of both contributor as well as sufferer. The livestock sector is primarily accountable for the emission of methane and nitrous oxide. Methane emission takes place from both enteric fermentation and manure management; whilst nitrous oxide emission is purely from manure management. Rumen methanogenesis due to emission intensity and loss of biological energy always remains a priority for the researchers. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure are determined by storage conditions and the organic content of the manure waste. Due to large livestock population, India is a major contributor of enteric methane emission, while its contribution to the excrement methane is negligible. In this chapter, information pertaining to enteric methane emission, excrement methane and nitrous oxide emissions and ameliorative/precautionary measures for reducing the intensity of emissions have been compiled and presented.
Part of the book: Greenhouse Gases
The biochemical and metabolic activities of living cells are virtually stopped at ultralow temperature and they enter into a suspended state of animation. However, as such, exposure of living cells to ultralow temperature is associated with complex changes that reduce their survivability following freeze-thawing. Cryopreservation is the method for preserving living cells at ultralow temperature at genetically and physiologically stabilized state. Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos is an integral part of the assisted reproductive technologies with many potential applications. Cryobanking of oocytes and embryos derived from genetically superior animals is promising for enhancing the outcome of planned breeding programs and conserving biodiversity of endangered animal species. Cryobanking can also ensure steady supply of oocytes and embryos for many downstream applications of assisted reproduction such as in vitro embryo production, embryo transfer, production of stem cells, and genetic engineering. Tremendous advancements have been made in this field over the past 5 decades and several methods have been demonstrated for cryopreserving oocytes and embryos in different species. This chapter focuses on the fundamental aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.
Part of the book: Infertility, Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Hormone Assays