Colour is the first impression that the consumer receives from wine and it influences the taste. Colour gives an idea about wine quality, age, oxidation and structure, so it has an important repercussion on the consumer perception of wine. Yeasts promote the formation of stable pigments by the production and release of fermentative metabolites affecting the formation of vitisin A and B type pyranoanthocyanins. The hydrox- and ycinnamate decarboxylase activity showed by some yeast strains produces highly reactive vinylphenols stimulating the formation of vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins from grape anthocyanin precursors during fermentation. Some yeasts also influence the formation of polymeric pigments by unclear mechanisms that can include the production of linking molecules such as acetaldehyde. Grape anthocyanins adsorbed in yeast cell walls during fermentation are removed from wine after racking processes affecting final pigment content. Moreover, the intensive use of non‐Saccharomyces yeasts in current oenology makes it interesting to assess the effect of new species in the improvement of wine colour.
Part of the book: Grape and Wine Biotechnology
Traditionally in winemaking, sulphur dioxide (SO2) is chemically the most widely used for microflora control as antimicrobial preservative. Other tested compounds for selective yeast control are sorbic and benzoic acids. Herein, we discuss the effectiveness and the application of traditional and novel treatments and biotechnologies for chemical and biological control of wine spoilage yeasts. The versatility of the killer toxins and the antimicrobial properties of natural compounds such as carvacrol, essential oils and bioactive peptides will be considered. Some of the wine spoilage yeasts that are intended to control belong to the genera Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes and Dekkera/Brettanomyces, but also the non-Saccharomyces yeasts species dominating the first phase of fermentation (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hansenula anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Wickerhamomyces anomalus) and some others, such as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, depending on the kind of wine to be produced.
Part of the book: Yeast
Trends in wine consumption are continuously changing. The latest in style is fresh wine with moderate alcohol content, high acidity, and primary aromas reminiscent of grapes, whereas certain fermentative volatiles may also influence the freshness of the wine. In addition, the effects of climate change on the composition of the grapes (high sugar content and low acidity) are adverse for the quality of the wine, also considering the microbiological stability. Herein, different strategies aiming at improving wine freshness are presented, and their performance in winemaking is discussed: among them, the addition of organic acids able to inhibit malolactic fermentation such as fumaric acid; the use of acidifying yeasts for alcoholic fermentation, such as Lachancea thermotolerans; and the selection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with β-glucosidase activity in order to release terpene glycosides present in the must.
Part of the book: Advances in Grape and Wine Biotechnology
This chapter reviews the main non-thermal technologies with application in enology and their impact in: the extraction of phenolic compounds from grapes, the elimination of indigenous microorganisms, and the subsequent effect in SO2 reduction. The technologies are physical processes with null or low repercussion in temperature and therefore gentle with sensory quality of grapes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), electron-beam irradiation (eBeam), ultrasound (US), and pulsed light (PL) have interesting advantages and some drawbacks that are extensively reviewed highlighting the potential applications in current technology.
Part of the book: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Winemaking, Wine Stabilization and Aging