The aim of the study in this chapter is to investigate performances shown by courtyard buildings, used widely both as microclimate regulators and as city-wide climate stabilizers especially in the hot-dry climate regions. Furthermore, this study examines atrium buildings having an increasing usage rate in recent years and the presence of comfort problems in particular which have not been resolved for different climate regions. Wind velocity measurements are performed in 36 different points determined in X and Y directions and 17 different points in the Z dimension on the outside of the courtyard considered in this study. In addition, both atrium building typology model and courtyard building typology model are obtained by taking the average courtyard dimensions seen in many regions; by covering open space courtyard section of the geometry with a transparent glass, atrium and courtyard typologies can be obtained. Furthermore, thermal comfort states and energy performances of these two different building typologies in interior courtyard and in building internal volumes for hot-dry, hot-humid and cold climate region conditions as well as the effect of solar radiation values exposing the building surfaces and solar movements during the day on the thermal performance on the building are analysed with CFD FloEFD and Star CCM+ software.
Part of the book: Energy Efficient Buildings
The air flow between building interior and the courtyard to form via natural convection in hot-dry climatic regions are achieved with the help of wind pressure in other warm-humid and hot-humid climatic areas. Therefore, it is necessary to take into consideration and to humid other openings of the building which might change the effectiveness of the air movement to form due to wind effect in courtyard buildings. Therefore, wind tunnel experimental ways were developed and examined first in this study for the purpose of gaining knowledge on the effect of the wind on the cooling load of the atrium and courtyard buildings, and information to allow pre-estimation of the air flow to take place at the surface openings of such structures. Since numerical methods would not be enough alone in particular with regard to the wind, the planned study on the models was realized via the experimental method in a wind tunnel; and also Computational Fluid Dynamics numerical analyses were realized. This is a wind tunnel experimental study for the investigation of various architectural solutions for better cooling and ventilation through examination of the air flow passing through the surface openings of courtyard structures and for revelation of the effects of those results on the cooling and ventilation load. In this context, a courtyard building model was made to experiment on. Example courtyard building models were acquired by modifying various parameters (courtyard and gap area rates) to assess the test data from the boundary layer wind tunnel of wind-supported natural ventilation event of the example model courtyard structure used in the study.
Part of the book: Sustainable Buildings