Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a procoagulant state because it is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence in thrombotic markers that lead to hypercoagulability and its association with hypertension and diabetic nephropathy (DN).
Part of the book: Update on Essential Hypertension
Dengue is the most prevalent emerging mosquito-borne viral disease, affecting more than 40% of the human population worldwide. Many symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections result in a relatively benign disease course known as dengue fever (DF). However, a small proportion of patients develop severe clinical manifestations, englobed in two main categories known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Secondary infection with any of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1, -2, -3, and -4) is a risk factor to develop severe forms of dengue disease. DSS is primarily characterized by sudden and abrupt endothelial dysfunction, resulting in vascular leak and organ impairment, which may progress to hypovolemic shock and death. Severe DENV disease (DHF/DSS) is thought to follow a complex relationship between distinct immunopathogenic processes involving host and viral factors, such as the serotype cross-reactive antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), the activation of T cells and complement pathways, the phenomenon of the cytokine storm, and the newly described viral toxin activity of the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), which together play critical roles in inducing vascular leak and virus pathogenesis. In this chapter that is divided in two parts, we will outline the recent advances in our understanding of DENV pathogenesis, highlighting key viral-host interactions and discussing how these interactions may contribute to DENV immunopathology and the development of vascular leak, a hallmark of severe dengue. Part I will address the general features of the DENV complex, including the virus structure and genome, epidemiology, and clinical outcomes, followed by an updated review of the literature describing the host innate immune strategies as well as the viral mechanisms acting against and in favor of the DENV replication cycle and infection.
Part of the book: Dengue Fever in a One Health Perspective
The Wolbachia-based approach is under evaluation as a control strategy against Aedes aegypti in Mexico. From 2017 to 2019, we performed a pilot study to evaluate an open-field mass-release of wAlbB-infected Ae. aegypti male mosquitoes, as part of an integrated vector management (IVM) plan led by the Ministry of Health in Mexico to suppress natural populations of Ae. aegypti in southern Mexico. Community engagement and social evaluation were part of the key activities conducted. Overall, results showed the positive benefits of this Wolbachia-based method in the reduction of Aedes mosquitoes (90%). Mosquito’s nuisance at bedtime and the increasing circulation of mosquitoes during the releasing days were reported as the negative perceptions of this method. Importantly, participants understood the difference between wild mosquitoes and those released as part of the project, as well as the importance of the IVM. A significant number of the population accepted and supported the project, and feedback was given to improve future mosquito-releasing activities. The social license was a key factor in the success of the intervention and should be part of innovative paradigms for mosquito-vector control strategies involving community engagement. We outline the Mexican experience of community engagement and social assessment in implementing a Wolbachia-based strategy.
Part of the book: Mosquito Research