Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was used to treat refractory Parkinson’s disease (PD) for the first time in 1987 by Professor Benabid’s group by placing stimulating electrodes into targeted brain structures. DBS is a widely accepted neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD), benign tremor, dystonia, epilepsy, and other neuropsychiatric disorders with no significant changes in anatomical brain structures. Prior to the introduction of DBS, traditional treatment for PD involved surgical removal of parts of the brain known as thalamotomy, pallidotomy, and cingulotomy. Intraoperative identification of the affected areas of brain is possible through a couple of mechanisms involving electrical stimulation and monitoring of the brain function, known as “functional neurosurgery”. Implantation of electrodes in the targeted area and the insertion of a programmable pulse generator under the clavicle or in the abdomen are the main steps in DBS surgery. Anesthetic management for DBS remains controversial and might vary between institutions and physicians. Although no guidelines have been developed, there are some common anesthetic considerations for DBS surgery, including difficult airway management, facilitation of neuromonitoring, and anesthetic drugs interference with microelectrode recordings (MERs). Local anesthesia, general anesthesia, and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) have been used worldwide in patients undergoing DBS.
Part of the book: Trauma, Tumors, Spine, Functional Neurosurgery