The data described in this chapter consider some new information about the benefits of vitamin D3 comparing the results obtained by the authors on the effects of vitamin D3 during oxidative stress with other works available in the literature. In particular, vitamin D3 can induce a concentration-dependent increase in endothelial NO production through eNOS activation consequential to the phosphorylation of p38, AKT, and ERK. Additional information obtained by the author is about the ability of vitamin D3 to prevent the endothelial cell death through modulation of interplay between apoptosis and autophagy. This effect is obtained by inhibiting superoxide anion generation, maintaining mitochondria function and cell viability, activating survival kinases (ERK and Akt), and inducing NO production. The results also describe that vitamin D3 causes human endothelial cell proliferation and migration in a 3-D matrix through NO-dependent mechanisms. These findings support the role of vitamin D3 in the human angiogenic process, suggesting new applications for vitamin D3 in tissue repair and wound healing. Finally, that the authors have demonstrated the ability of vitamin D3 to counteract negative effects of oxidative stress in brain cells. These data suggest the potential therapeutic use of vitamin D to treat or prevent degenerative brain diseases.
Part of the book: A Critical Evaluation of Vitamin D
The human stomach is extremely vulnerable to various attacks able to cause erosion and mucosal epithelium damage which lead to gastrointestinal tract bleeding and/or ulcer perforations and finally worsen the original disease. A prolonged exposition to strong acidic environment causes coagulation necrosis resulting from the desiccating action of the acid on proteins in exposed tissues with inflammation and accumulation of intracellular radical oxygen species. Therapeutic strategies aim to treat both symptoms and epithelial damage with chemical or mechanical approaches. In this context, alginates seem to have great importance, especially if combined with other molecules known to have some properties on gastric epithelial cells, for example, vitamin D3, extract of prickly pear and olive leaves, and a tyndalized probiotic. This natural composition is able to exert a gastroprotective effect to maintain or restore the integrity of gastric epithelium through an antioxidant pathway, inhibiting apoptosis and activating survival kinases better than other pharmacological or natural active principles.
Part of the book: Alginates