Urinary incontinence is a complex and serious condition that can affect all age groups around the world. It is not only a serious medical condition but also an undeniable psychosocial problem creating embarrassment and negative self‐perception, and it has a severe impact on a patient's quality of life. Today, there are wide different treatment options in urinary incontinence from surgery to conservative modalities. Among these, conservative management approaches are recommended as the first‐line treatment to manage with urinary incontinence. The choice of the most suitable option to treat for urinary incontinence differs according to the underlying pathophysiological mechanism defining subtypes of urinary incontinence and severity of symptoms. In this chapter, we addressed the different components of physiotherapy management of urinary incontinence, including pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, biofeedback, vaginal cones, mechanical devices and magnetic stimulation. We concluded that the optimal physiotherapy care should be individualised to ensure applicability the clinic setting for each patient.
Part of the book: Synopsis in the Management of Urinary Incontinence
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common medical condition with major socioeconomic impact. Prevalence in adult population is estimated to be 5–30%. Its pathology is based on venous hypertension on the lower extremities. This results in edema, subcutaneous fibrosis, pigmentation, chronic pain and ulceration. The severity of chronic venous disease is closely related to the magnitude of venous hypertension. Treatment options for CVI include medical, interventional, surgical and physical treatments. The initial management of CVI involves conservative approaches to reduce symptoms and prevent development of secondary complications and progression of disease. It includes the elevation of the limb together with the supportive methods, pharmacotherapy and structured exercise program, as well as complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP), intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), compression stocking (CS), patient education and kinesio tape. CVI is a chronic disease that needs a lifelong care. In this review, we present a discussion about pathophysiology and risk factors for CVI development and conservative treatment options.
Part of the book: Clinical Physical Therapy
Chronic venous diseases of the lower limbs are one of the common and disabling conditions with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins or even to venous ulceration, effecting patient’s quality of life negatively, particularly in relation to the domains of pain, physical function and mobility. It is not only a serious medical condition but also an undeniable physical and psychosocial problem and has a severe impact on a patient’s quality of life. Quality of life is defined as individuals’ perception of their position in life and refers to the patient’s ability to enjoy normal life activities. It is a common and subjective term that has a number of dimensions described as patient‐reported outcomes. There are numerous factors that affect person’s quality of life negatively. Some of those are social relationships, economic status, physical health, psychological status, environmental conditions (living place or work), pain and especially chronic diseases. We conducted a review about quality of life in chronic venous diseases of the lower limbs to identify how person’s quality of life is affected. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the effect of the chronic venous diseases on the person’s quality of life.
Part of the book: Well-being and Quality of Life
Cerebral palsy is a complex and serious disease that can affect all age groups around the world. There is no prevalence differentiation between developed and developing countries. Preeclampsia, maternal trauma, low birth weight, gestational age, birth asphyxia, intrauterine infection, etc. can also be included in the list of risk factors. Functional limitations, self‐care difficulties, behavioral problems, seizures, cognitive, sensory, social and emotional impairments and difficulties of daily life activities can affect health‐related quality of life in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. So, it is important to evaluate health‐related quality of life in cerebral palsy. It is stated that there are many generic instruments to evaluate health‐related quality of life. However, using specific instruments for cerebral palsy is more sensitive than generic instruments to evaluate effect of cerebral palsy in children's health‐related quality of life. The aim of this chapter is to investigate health‐related quality of life instruments in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.
Part of the book: Well-being and Quality of Life