Metastasis is a complicated course that involves the spread of a neoplasm to distant parts of the body from its original site. A cancer cell must complete a series of steps before it becomes a clinically detectable lesion for successful colonization in the body. These are separation from the primary tumor, invasion and penetration of their basement membranes, entry into the blood vessels and survival within blood, and entry into lymphatics. A major challenge in extracellular matrix (ECM) biology is to understand the roles of the ECM and how disruption of ECM dynamics may contribute to cancer. A noteworthy area of forthcoming cancer research will be to determine whether abnormal ECM could be an effective cancer therapeutic target. We should understand how ECM composition and organization are normally maintained and how they may be deregulated in cancer. So the aims of this chapter were to focus on extracellular matrix. Invasion and metastatic skills, properties and functions of the ECM, abnormal ECM dynamics, tumor microenvironment and ECM, details of ECM invasion, role of ECM and ECM‐associated proteins in metastasis, tumor dormant and metastatic process, essential component of the niches, role of the ECM in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are be briefly explained in this chapter.
Part of the book: Tumor Metastasis
The incidence of Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors is gradually increasing. Furthermore, metastatic neoplasms are frequently seen in neuropathology practice as a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Pathologists try to reach a more accurate diagnosis by mentally filtering a synthesis, comprising age, radiological characteristics and microscopic findings in the sample sent, starting already from the intraoperative diagnosis process. By displaying their skills, they unveil whether a lesion in the brain parenchyma is a normal or reactive tumor and if this is a tumor, is it primary or metastatic, and if it is primary, what is the tumor type or if it is metastatic, which organ could it be associated with. Pathologists use diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers in order to enable the patient receive the most effective and sufficient treatment. They ensure that an individualized treatment is provided via these tools, by making a histological diagnosis of the lesion according to the WHO classification, identifying the course of the disease and preventing undesired and dangerous complications. This chapter will focus on answering these questions and share the value of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of brain tumors in neurosciences, which is gradually increasing in importance, and how pathologists execute this art.
Part of the book: New Approaches to the Management of Primary and Secondary CNS Tumors