Nowadays with the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs) in form of residential smart microgrids (SMGs), a large portion of energy can be saved through coordinated scheduling of smart household devices and management of distributed energy resources (DERs). There are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy, and typical implementation of building-level DERs by integrating them into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and an integrated communications architecture to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. By the aid of such technologies, residential consumers have also the capability to mitigate their energy costs and satisfy their own requirements paying less attention to the configuration of the energy supply system. Regarding these points, this chapter initially defines an efficient framework for coordinated DSM and DERs management in an integrated building and SMG system. Then a working energy management system (EMS) for applications in residential IESs is described and mathematically modeled. Finally, the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model is tested and validated in different operating modes compared to the existing models. The findings of this chapter show that by the use of an expert EMS that coordinates supply and demand sides simultaneously, it is very possible not only to reduce energy costs of a residential IES, but also to provide comfortable lifestyle for occupants.
Part of the book: Energy Management of Distributed Generation Systems
Energy storage systems (ESSs) can enhance the performance of energy networks in multiple ways; they can compensate the stochastic nature of renewable energies and support their large-scale integration into the grid environment. Energy storage options can also be used for economic operation of energy systems to cut down system’s operating cost. By utilizing ESSs, it is very possible to store energy in off-peak hours with lower cost and energize the grid during peak load intervals avoiding high price spikes. Application of ESSs will also enable better utilization of distributed energy sources and provide higher controllability at supply/demand side which is helpful for load leveling or peak shaving purposes. Last but not least, ESSs can provide frequency regulation services in off-grid locations where there is a strong need to meet the power balance in different operating conditions. Each of the abovementioned applications of energy storage units requires certain performance measures and constraints, which has to be well considered in design phase and embedded in control and management strategies. This chapter mainly focuses on these aspects and provides a general framework for optimal design and operation management of battery-based ESSs in energy networks.
Part of the book: Advancements in Energy Storage Technologies