Climate change induced warming results in permafrost degradation. Melting permafrost subsequently leads to an increased incidence of landslides. The study area was within the northwest section of the Lesser Khingan Range in northern China along the Bei'an-Heihe Highway. We analyzed the impact of climate change on landslide movement in the permafrost zone via a combination of geological survey and meteorological data. The average annual temperature of the study area has increased by 3.2°C in last 60 years, and permafrost degradation is severe. Loose soil on the hillside surface provides appropriate conditions for the infiltration of atmospheric precipitation and snowmelt, and seepage from thawing permafrost. As it infiltrates downwards, water is blocked by the underlying permafrost or dense soil, and infiltrates along this barrier layer toward lower positions, forming a potential sliding zone. The combination of high density resistivity (HDR) methods based on soil resistivity values, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods based on characteristics of radar wave reflection, respectively, and geological drilling can be utilized to determine the regional stratigraphic distribution. This will allow the exact location of the landslide sliding surface to be precisely determined. Field test results indicate that radar reflectivity characteristics and the resistivity values of the soil in the landslide mass is significantly different from surrounding soil. There are sudden decreases in the apparent resistivity values at the sliding surface location. In addition, the radar exhibits strong reflection at the sliding surface position, with a sudden increase in the amplitude of the radar wave. Drilling results indicate that the soil has high water content at the location of the sliding surface of the landslide mass in the study area, which is entirely consistent with the GPR and HDR results. Thus, abnormal radar wave reflection and abrupt changes in apparent resistivity values can be used in practice to identify the location of landslide sliding surfaces in this region. We produce a detailed analysis of a representative landslide within the study area. Displacement monitoring locations were positioned at the trailing edge of the landslide mass and on the landslide mass surface. We then used this data to determine the relationships of landslide movement with both ground temperature and the trailing edge pore water pressure. The results suggest seasonal variation in the landslide movement process and characteristics of an annual cyclical trend. Landslide movement can be described by intermittence and low angles. The slip rate and the timing of slide occurrence exhibit relationships with the trailing edge pore water pressure of the landslide mass. The seepage of thaw water into the landslide mass will impact the trailing edge pore water pressure of the landslide mass. This phenomenon is identified as the primary cause of landslide movement.
Part of the book: River Basin Management
In permafrost‐degraded areas, “islands” of permafrost can be buried in the unfrozen soil. When permafrost is arranged in this discontinuous pattern, it is more difficult to analyze from an engineering or geological perspective. The degree of resistivity of unfrozen soil is determined by the dry density, temperature, moisture content, and pore water resistivity of the soil, as well as by the mineral composition, size, and cementing state of the soil particles. Part of the water in the soil pores experiences a phase change as the soil freezes, so permafrost has different resistivity than unfrozen soil. In this chapter, we explore the conduction characteristics of permafrost. First, we established a theoretical model to analyze the factors affecting the resistivity of permafrost. Next, we used an experimental study to analyze how unfrozen water content, initial moisture content, soil temperature, and dry density influence the resistivity of frozen soil. These experimental study results served to validate the rationality of the model of permafrost resistivity. To analyze differences in conductivity between underground media, we used a high‐density resistivity (HDR) method, which infers the storage of underground geologic bodies with different resistivity based on the distribution of a conduction current under the electric field action. In this chapter, the WGMD‐9 super HDR measurement system produced by the Chongqing Benteng Numerical Control Technique Research Institute was used to obtain the resistivity profile. The study region was the road area from Bei’an Expressway to Heihe Expressway in the permafrost degeneration area in Northeast China. A permafrost profile map was drawn based on data from engineering drilling and an analysis of factors that influence permafrost resistivity. The reliability of the permafrost profile map was verified by an analysis of temperature data taken at measured points at different depths of the soil profile.
Part of the book: Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity