Accurate evaluation is the final aim of nondestructive testing (NDT). However, the present electromagnetic NDT methods are commonly used to check the existence of defects, and all the tested targets only consist of concave defects (i.e., section-loss defects), such as holes, cracks, or corrosions, failing to evaluate the tested surface topography, which mainly consists of concave-shaped and bump-shaped features. At present, it is accepted that the commonly observed signals of the defects mainly manifest themselves in a single-/double-peak wave and their up/down directions of the peak wave can be easily changed just by changing the directions of either applied magnetization or pick-up units even for one defect. Unlike the present stylus and optical methods for surface topography inspections, a new electromagnetic NDT and evaluation (NDT&E) methodology is provided based on the accurate magnetic representation of surface topography, in which a concave-shaped feature produces “positive” magnetic flux leakages (MFLs) and therefore forms a “raised” signal wave but a bump-shaped feature generates “negative” magnetic fields and therefore leads to a “sunken” signal wave. In this case, the corresponding relationships between wave features and surface topography are presented and the relevant evaluation system for testing surface topography (concave, bumped, and flat features) is built. The provided methodology was analyzed and verified by finite element and experimental methods. Meanwhile, the different dimension parameters of height/depth and width of surface topography are further studied.
Part of the book: Non-Destructive Testing