In recent years, there have been three significant pieces of research which helped propel gold catalysis research into the forefront: the discoveries that gold/silica can catalyse the hydrogenation of pentene, that gold on carbon can be used in the hydrochlorination of acetylene and that deposition-precipitation (DP) methods can be used to prepare nanogold on titania capable of enabling the oxidation of CO at very low temperatures. The synthesis of small gold particles, their characterisation and peculiar properties are considered together with their behaviour as heterogeneous catalysts for a variety of reactions. Some of the issues concerning the practical application of gold catalysts are also discussed.
Part of the book: Catalytic Application of Nano-Gold Catalysts
The aim of this chapter is to present proposed kinetic and density functional theory (DFT) models for the selective oxidation of glycerol to various hydroxy-acids over an acidified Au/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Glycerol oxidation over gold-based catalysts to value-added chemicals continues to attract attention worldwide. Both the kinetics and theoretical mechanisms of this reaction have been reported in the past. However, some of the reported kinetic data was possibly collected under mass transfer limitations. In this case study we demonstrate that if mass transfer is eliminated, a pseudo zero-order model can be fitted to the experimental data with a high degree of correlation. Furthermore, we propose a plausible mechanism of pyruvaldehyde (PA) isomerisation to lactic acid (LAC) over supported molybdenum Lewis acid sites as investigated with density functional theory (DFT) approach. A proposed DFT model suggested that the rate-limiting step in the isomerisation of PA to LAC, catalysed by a Mo Lewis acid-site, could be the dissociation of a proton from an adsorbed water molecule ? the protonation step.
Part of the book: Advanced Chemical Kinetics