Redox potential, known as oxidation–reduction or oxidoreduction potential (ORP), not only indicates the reduction and oxidation capacity of the environment but also reflects the metabolic activity of microorganisms. Redox potential can be monitored online and controlled in time for more efficient fermentation operation. This chapter reviews the enzymes that modulate intracellular redox potential, the genetically engineered strains that harbor specific redox potential–regulated genes, the approaches that were used to manipulate and control redox potential toward the production of desired metabolites, the role of redox potential in metabolic pathway, and the impact of redox potential on microbial physiology and metabolism. The application of redox potential–controlled ethanol fermentation and the development of three redox potential–controlled fermentation processes are illustrated. In the end, the future perspective of redox potential control is provided.
Part of the book: Fermentation Processes