Laser technology is used in many basic and clinical disciplines and specialties, and it has played an important role in promoting the development of ophthalmology, especially corneal refractive surgery. We provide an overview of the evolution of laser technology for use in refractive and other ophthalmologic surgeries, mainly focusing on two types of lasers and their applications. First, we discuss the characteristics of the excimer laser and its application in corneal refractive surgery treating ametropia (e.g., photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK), epipolis laser in situ keratomileusis (Epi-LASIK), and transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (Trans-PRK) and presbyopia surgery). Second, we discuss the characteristics of the femtosecond laser and its application in corneal refractive surgery (e.g., femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK), insertion of intracorneal ring segments, small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), and femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx)) and other ophthalmologic surgeries (e.g., penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), and cataract surgery). The patients studied received many benefits from the excimer laser and femtosecond laser technologies and were satisfied with their clinical outcomes.
Part of the book: High Energy and Short Pulse Lasers