In this publication, the authors considered the effect of unprecedented human activity into land degradation and desertification processes in Ukraine. The land degradation mapping technique based on processing of a two-level model for multispectral satellite imagery of low and medium spatial resolution was described. This technique was used to investigate land degradation and desertification within relatively pristine and human-inspired mining and industrial landscapes located in the central, southern, and eastern parts of Ukraine. In each particular case, the authors offered thematic land degradation maps obtained as a result of multispectral images processing, allowed assessing the state and tendencies in land degradation processes within the study areas. Data obtained visually emphasize the level of anthropogenic stress, impact of long-term change of vegetation cover, and correlation of intensive development of mining, construction, agricultural and other human activities with high level of land degradation within investigated areas. The transition to adaptive farming systems implies the achievement of maximum compatibility between soil and plant, development of crop rotation, soil conservation tillage system. Conducted research on the creation of adaptive systems of crop production takes into account the environmental, landscape and geochemical peculiarities of the steppe zone of Ukraine, to get the production of environmentally safe agricultural products. They can be used in further studies of a differentiated approach to achieving a balanced potential of agricultural landscapes. Remote detecting of degradation and desertification processes intensification at early stages will be able to promote further measures for improving the territories conditions. The further research has to be directed on development of geoinformation technologies for landscape changes remote mapping.
Part of the book: Land Degradation and Desertification
Radioactive contamination of soils is an issue of severe importance for Ukraine remaining with a significant post-Soviet baggage of not settled problems regarding radioactive waste. Regular radioecological observations and up-to-date contamination mapping based on advanced geoinformation techniques give an ability to prepare for, respond to, and manage potential adverse effects from pollution with radionuclides and heavy metals. Hyperspectral satellite imagery provides potentially powerful tool for soil contamination detection and mapping. An intention to find a relation between remotely sensed hyperspectral and ground-based measured soil contamination fractions in area of the uranium mill tailings deposits near Kamianske city was made. An advanced algorithm based on known TCMI (target-constrained minimal interference)-matched filter with a nonnegative constraint was applied to determine the soil contamination fractions by hyperspectral imagery. The time series maps of spatial distribution of the soil contamination fractions within study area around the Sukhachevske tailings dump are presented. Time series analysis of the map resulted in two independent parameters: the average value for the entire observation period and the daily mean increment of the soil contamination fractions.
Part of the book: Hyperspectral Imaging in Agriculture, Food and Environment