Many plants or plant-derived compounds with high levels of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial properties could be of great benefit for wound healing. Several studies have documented the use of plant extracts for the development of bioactive wound dressings. The purpose of this chapter is to give an update about the vegetal and bee products, which can be used as bioactive substances in wound dressings or in other formulations for wound healing. The adverse effects of plant and bee extracts, such as contact allergies, are also presented. In order to better exploit the huge reservoir of pharmacologically active plant-derived compounds and extracts, standardized methodology and clinical trials are necessary to give more concrete evidence supporting the use of traditional medicine in wound management.
Part of the book: Worldwide Wound Healing
The pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases (AIDS) is not only attributed to genetic susceptibility, but also to environmental factors, among which, those disturbing gut microbiota have attracted increasing attention lately. Healthy gut microbiota has beneficial effects on the development and activity of the immune system, playing a central role in peripheric tolerance. Compositional and functional changes in gut microbiota were reported in various AIDS, and increasing evidence suggests that disturbed gut microbiota contributes to their immunopathogenesis. Thyroid and intestinal diseases prevalently coexist—for instance, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease are the most common autoimmune thyroid diseases and often co-occur with celiac disease. This association can be at least explained by increased intestinal permeability, allowing antigens to cross the barrier more easily and activate the immune system. The passage of microbial antigens into the internal environment may break the self-tolerance, generating the production of autoantibodies and/or autoreactive T cells. In this chapter, we briefly present the roles of intestinal microbiota in human physiology, with a focus on the role of microbiota in immune tolerance.
Part of the book: Immunology of the GI Tract