The use of 2D nanocarbon materials as scaffolds for the functionalization with different molecules has been rising as a result of their outstanding properties. This chapter describes the synthesis of graphene and its derivatives, particularly graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Both GO and rGO represent a tunable alternative for applications with biomolecules due to the oxygenated moieties, which allow interactions in a either covalent or non‐covalent way. From here, other discussed topics are the biofunctionalization with keratin (KE) and chitosan (CS). The non‐covalent functionalization is based primarily on secondary interactions such as van der Waals forces, electrostatics interactions, or π–π stacking formed between KE or CS with graphenic materials. On the other hand, covalent functionalization with KE and CS is mainly based on the reaction among the functional groups present in those biomolecules and the graphenic materials. As a result of the functionalization, different applications have been proposed for these novel materials, which are reviewed in order to offer an overview about the possible fields of application of 2D nanocarbon materials. In a nutshell, the objective of this work is as follows: first, overhaul different aspects about the synthesis of graphene chemically obtained, and second, make a review of different approaches in the functionalization of 2D carbon materials with specific biomolecules.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Graphene Research