The fetal environment has a remarkable capacity for facilitating and guiding tissue development. Placental tissues including the placental disc, umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and amniotic sac are highly specialized tissues responsible for transporting nutrients and coordinating developmental cues during pregnancy and fetal development. Placental tissues are nutrient-rich, structurally complex and immunologically privileged, making them promising allograft therapies for advanced wound care. Amniotic membrane allografts in particular have been shown to be effective therapies for treatment of chronic wounds, including diabetic and venous ulcers, by modulating inflammation, reducing scar tissue formation and enhancing healing. Amniotic membrane has also demonstrated the ability to promote cell proliferation, cell migration and modulate cytokine secretion by a variety of cell types involved in wound healing, including human dermal fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells and stem cells. In addition, amniotic membrane allografts have been shown to stimulate stem cell activity, promote angiogenesis and modulate inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Placental tissues are complex tissues composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), cells and a broad array of cytokines that may collectively enhance wound healing by modulating wound environments and stimulating endogenous cells to progress through the normal healing stages of inflammation, proliferation and remodeling.
Part of the book: Worldwide Wound Healing