Antibodies are glycoprotein structures with immune activity. They are able to identify or induce a neutralizing immune response when they identify foreign bodies such as bacteria, viruses, or tumor cells. Immunoglobulins are produced and secreted by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of antigens. The first monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have emerged from a survey of hybridomas, and nowadays mAbs are produced mostly from cultivations of these cells. Additionally, there are studies and patents using a range of cells and microorganisms engineered for the production of mAbs at commercial scale. For some years, new methodologies have advanced with new production processes, allowing scale-up production and market introduction. Large-scale production has revolutionized the market for monoclonal antibodies by boosting its production and becoming a more practical method of production. Production techniques have only had a sizable breakthrough due to molecular techniques. Various systems of production are used, including animal cells, microorganisms, plants, and mammary glands. All of these require the technological development of production process such as a stirrer, a wave bioreactor, and roller bottles.
Part of the book: Fermentation Processes