The main objective of this chapter is to introduce high‐energy nanosecond laser pulse treatment for enhancing the surface bioactivity of titanium for bone and tissue implant fabrication. Improvement to the implant performance could immensely benefit the human patient. Bioactivity enhancement of materials is currently an essential challenge in implant engineering. Laser micro/nano surface texturing of materials offers a simple, accurate, and precise method to increase the biocompatibility of materials in one single step. In this chapter, the effects of laser power, scanning parameters, and frequency on surface structure and topographic properties are studied. Through bioactivity assessment of treated titanium substrates, it was found that an increase in power and frequency increases the bioactivity of titanium, while a decrease in scanning speed of laser could lead to an increase in the cell adhesion ability of titanium.
Part of the book: High Energy and Short Pulse Lasers
The increasing demand for new biomaterials and fabrication methods provides an opportunity for silicon to solve current challenges in the field. Laser processing is becoming more common as the public begins to understand its simplicity and value. When an abundant material is paired with a reliable and economic fabrication method, biomedical devices can be created and improved. In this chapter, different laser parameters of the Nd:YAG laser are investigated and the topographic and physical trends are analyzed. The biocompatibility is assessed for scanning speed, line spacing, overlap number, pulse frequency, and laser power with the use of simulated body fluid (SBF) and fibroblast culturing (NIH 3T3). Not only can nanosecond pulses increase the biocompatibility of silicon by generating silicon oxide nanofibers, but the substrate becomes bioactive with the manipulation of cell interactions.
Part of the book: Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine