Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide and has been implicated in the pathogenesis and complications of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining this relationship has been challenging, and the clinical application of vitamin D screening and supplementation for CVD risk prevention and modification remain uncertain. The available evidence includes large observational studies and smaller randomized trials mostly evaluating surrogate endpoints and scarcely directed at CV outcomes as a primary endpoint. Methodological heterogeneity is present among most of these trials. Clarification of the clinical application of this relationship through ongoing large randomized trials should have important implications for public health.
Part of the book: A Critical Evaluation of Vitamin D