S-layers are crystalline arrays formed by proteinaceous subunits that cover the outer surface of many different kinds of microorganisms. This “proteinaceous cover” is particularly important in the case of ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria (IRRB) that might be used in bioremediating hazardous and radioactive wastes (HRW). Despite the exponential growth in the number of comparative studies and solved proteic crystal structures, the proteic networks, diversity, and bioremediation-useful structural properties of IRRB S-layers remain unknown. Here, aided by literature, a tentative model of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 S-layer proteins (SLPs) and the network of its main constituents were proposed. The domain analysis of this network was performed. Moreover, to show the diversity of IRRB S-layers, comparative genomics and computer modeling experiments were carried out. In addition, using in silico modeling, assisted by previously published data, the outermost exposed segments of D. radiodurans SlpA (surface layer protein A) that were predicted to interact with uranium were mapped. The combination of data and results pointed to various prospective applications of IRRB S-layers in nanobiotechnology for bioremediation of radioactive waste.
Part of the book: Management of Hazardous Wastes
The synthesis of single crystal is an area of intense activity in the materials science. The obtaining of the single crystal with sufficient dimension for X-ray diffraction depends on several factors including the chemical composition, crystal structure of the reagents, and physical parameters (temperature and pressure). In this context, this chapter is dedicated to the description of the most common synthesis methods of single crystal in the solid-state chemistry: solid-state method, hydrothermal, and slow evaporation at room temperature. Same other materials can be obtained at high pressure. There are also some physical techniques to grow single crystal, each technique is specific for specific materials.
Part of the book: Synthesis Methods and Crystallization