The current research in oncology is focused on genetics and molecular oncology in order to obtain better understanding of the etiology of tumor disease. Detailed knowledge of oncogenesis mechanisms could lead to invention of effective therapeutic tools against cancer. Under healthy conditions, cell cycle is regulated by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which should be in strict balance. Genesis of tumor is a consequence of the accumulation of genetic alterations, which help the cell to escape normal cellular regulatory mechanisms and destruction by immune system. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain tumor occurring mostly in population of adults. Patients suffering from GBM have very poor prognosis. Despite development in radiology methods promising earlier diagnosis and development of clinical and radiation oncology with newer treatment regimes, the effect of therapy remains limited and prognosis of patients has not improved as expected. Target of GBM research are genes involved in response to oxidative stress and DNA damage, genes regulating cell cycle, genes determining immune response, growth factors, and others. Genetic alterations are studied in connection to their possible relationship to susceptibility of brain tissue for tumor formation, to sensitivity of brain tissue for various environmental etiology factors, to effect of anticancer treatment or resistance of tumor tissue to therapy, to overall survival, and progression-free interval.
Part of the book: Neurooncology
This chapter offers literary review of most frequently observed brain tumors in childhood. It offers basics of epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnostics of most often occurring types of tumors according to new WHO classification of brain tumors from 2016 and emphasizes molecular biological characteristics and role of altered genes and genetic pathways in brain tumor etiology, classification and treatment. This review not only concentrates on gliomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas, but also offers characterization of other less frequently observed lesions. Each tumor characteristics also contains basics of therapeutical possibilities of these lesions with focus on targeted and individually designed therapy according to molecular and genetic alterations found in tumor tissue sample.
Part of the book: Brain Tumors