The classification, pathobiology and clinical management of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) are reviewed. Three important issues are identified: (1) CMML should be recognised as a unique clinical entity and as distinct from myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). Somatic mutations of a restricted set of genes are frequent in CMML. (2) Risk stratification for CMML patients should utilise new CMML‐specific prognostic scoring systems. (3) Until randomised clinical trials have defined the role of new drugs (especially of the hypomethylating agents), treatment must focus on the main symptoms and aim at quality‐of‐life improvement.
Part of the book: Myelodysplastic Syndromes