Nutritional Status of Cotton Plant Assessed by Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND)
The use of compositional nutrient diagnosis (CND) to assess the nutritional status of cotton crop is quite important to improve knowledge on plant nutritional requirement and assist the fertilizer recommendation. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the possibility of using CND for cotton crop. This method has scarcely been used to assess the nutritional status of cotton plant although a few results have indicated that it can be promising. In fact, CND methodology seems to be better in the nutritional diagnosis than traditional methods such as sufficient range (SR) and critical value approach (CVA). Its efficiency has increased with the possibility of applying multivariate analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), canonical correlation, and so on. The application of PCA possibility to note some interactions among the nutrients is important for understanding the dynamics of nutrients in plants.
Part of the book: Cotton Research
Phosphorus in Forage Production
The aim in developing this work was to summarize information about phosphorus (P) limitation and dynamic in tropical soils for forage grasses production. The major idea is direct information about limited factors affecting P availability, dynamic of P fractionation, P pools, P forms, P use efficiency, and the 4R’s Nutrient Stewardship’ for P-fertilizer in forage grasses. Organizing these sub-headings in a chapter can result in interesting of how P behaves under tropical soils, in order to take decision to manage P-fertilizer to accomplish forage grasses production with social, economic, and environmental benefits. As the most limiting nutrient in tropical soils, P-fertilizer in forage grasses can be more effective if the best management practices are followed. In order to avoid excess P-fertilizer application in soil or P-fertilizer response with low efficiency, it is important to understand the P dynamic and the factors associated with P adsorption in soil. Even with low amount of P requested to forages species, the P available in soil is quite low, and this knowledge is primordial to direct P-fertilizer. Tropical soils are quite limited in P content, due to the natural formation with parental material poor in P content and highly weathering condition. Thus, in order to improve phosphorus use efficiency, the 4R’s must be followed to improve P use efficiency (PUE). It is not easy to improve PUE in highly weathering soil with high buffering capacity; however, all the combination of best management practices for P-fertilizer application can result in better use efficiency. Based on the scarcity of natural P-sources in the whole world, the use of alternative P-sources should be incentivized, and more researches about this issue are need for better understanding.
Part of the book: New Perspectives in Forage Crops
Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Nitrogen Fertilizer in Forage Grasses
There is a concern about the growing population and limitation in natural resources which are taking the population to direct its agricultural systems into a more productive and efficient activity, looking to avoid a negative impact on the surrounding environment. The industry energy expended to produce nitrogen (N)-fertilizer is considered an indirect consumption of energy in agriculture, which is higher with an increasing forage yield. Nitrogen is the key nutrient associated with high-yielding production in forage grass and grain crops. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the best management practices (BMPs) for N-fertilizer application in forage grasses to improve N-use efficiency, since the most economical way to feed livestock is forage plants where its potential biomass production is not well explored. The BMPs basically follow three management practices: (1) soil nutrient availability and forage requirement, (2) fertilizer application, and (3) decrease in nutrient losses from soil. In order to take a decision on applying N-fertilizer to accomplish forage grasses production with social, economic, and environmental benefits, the N-fertilizer use in forage grasses is going to follow the “Right rate, Right source, Right place, and Right time (4R) nutrient stewardship.” The application of the 4R’s nutrients stewardship is directly associated with economic, social, and environmental impact. The capacity of the 4R’s implementation worldwide turns into a best guide to improve the striving of better N-use efficiency in forage grass. The 4R’s are interrelated; thus, the recommendation of N-fertilizer rates cannot be prescribed without the combination of the 4R’s where a whole system to be followed should be considered to decide about N-fertilizer in pasture. Consequently, any decision in one of the 4R’s is going to affect the expected N-fertilizer results and dry matter production.
Part of the book: New Perspectives in Forage Crops
Organic Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems
This work summarizes information about organic nitrogen (N) in the agricultural system. The organic N forms in soils have been studied by identifying and quantifying the released organic compounds when soils are acid treated at high temperature, in which the following organic N fractions are obtained: hydrolyzable total N, subdivided into hydrolyzable NH4+-N, amino sugars-N, amino acids-N, and unidentified-N and acid insoluble N, a fraction that remains associated with soil minerals after acid hydrolysis. Nitrogen mineralization and immobilization are biochemical processes in nature. This chapter summarizes how these processes occur in the agricultural system. Then, soluble organic nitrogen (SON), volatilization and denitrification processes, and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as a key component of the nitrogen cycle and how it makes N available to plants are also discussed. Finally, we discuss the use of organic fertilizers as N source to satisfy the worldwide demand for organic foods produced without synthetic inputs.
Part of the book: Nitrogen Fixation