This section reviews the current literature on medicinal plants including extracts, fractions, isolated compounds and natural products that have been demonstrated to have wound healing properties. Various electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder and Google Scholar were employed to search for plants, natural plant constituents and natural products that have been scientifically demonstrated to have wound healing activity using in vivo and in vitro wound models. Parameters used in the evaluation of an agent with wound healing properties include rate of wound contraction, tensile strength, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, hydroxyproline content assay and histological investigations including re-epithelization, collagen synthesis, granulation, proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in excision and incision wound model studies. Eighty-five medicinal plants belonging to 45 families, phytoconstituents including phenolics, oils and other substances including honey were identified as potential wound healing agents or possess wound healing properties using various wound healing models.
Part of the book: Wound Healing
The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) dates back to thousands of years when man used natural sources of these agents in a lot of pain and inflammatory conditions. The tone for modern day discovery and use of NSAIDs was set with the discovery of aspirin. Today in addition to aspirin, a host of other NSAIDs of varying potency and efficacy is employed in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. This chapter looks with key interest in the existing and evolving role of NSAIDs in therapeutics with emphasis on the current insights into their mechanism of action and side effect profiles associated with its use in pain and inflammation as well as its potential therapeutic benefits in cancer chemotherapy.
Part of the book: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Plant-derived compounds have been an integral component in man’s quest to discover ideal anticancer agents. A number of new agents are currently in clinical development with promising selective activity against cancer cell lines and cancer-related molecular targets. This book chapter discusses 14 of such compounds isolated from African plants from 15 plant families. Also contained in this book chapter are compounds from African plants that hold prospect as potential anticancer agents as informed by their in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. It is, therefore, worthwhile that researchers in the African continent and the world over should keep on working on identifying biomolecules with potential in cancer management.
Part of the book: Natural Products and Cancer Drug Discovery
A surge in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a major cause for concern. Over the past few decades, no major new types of antibiotics have been produced and almost all known antibiotics are increasingly losing their activity against pathogenic microorganisms. The levels of multi-drug resistant bacteria have also increased. It is known that worldwide, more than 60% of all antibiotics that are produced find their use in animal production for both therapeutic and non-therapeutic purposes. The use of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry has been linked to the development and spread of resistant bacteria. Poultry products are among the highest consumed products worldwide but a lot of essential antibiotics are employed during poultry production in several countries; threatening the safety of such products (through antimicrobial residues) and the increased possibility of development and spread of microbial resistance in poultry settings. This chapter documents some of the studies on antibiotic usage in poultry farming; with specific focus on some selected bacterial species, their economic importance to poultry farming and reports of resistances of isolated species from poultry settings (farms and poultry products) to essential antibiotics.
Part of the book: Antimicrobial Resistance
The prevalence of conditions that eventually result in poor wound healing abounds as humans advance in age. With the increased possibility of wounds not healing comes a leap in morbidity and mortality with its accompanying socioeconomic impact. It is therefore relevant to understand what accounts for aberrant wound healing and more importantly the molecular markers involved in this pathological state. There are known events associated with the wound healing process, spanning from cellular involvement to the role of specific proteins such as cytokines and growth factors that are significant biomarkers in the wound healing process. This chapter discusses biomarkers relevant to the wound healing process, and these biomarkers go a long way to help identify and stratify nonhealing patients for whom biomarker-guided approaches may be of importance clinically in their management.
Part of the book: Wound Healing
This chapter focuses on reviewing publications on medicinal plants used in the treatment of common diseases such as malaria, cholera, pneumonia, tuberculosis and asthma. Traditional medicine is still recognized as the preferred primary health care system in many rural communities, due to a number of reasons including affordability and effectiveness. The review concentrated on current literature on medicinal plants, highlighting on information about ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. The search for publications on medicinal plants with scientifically proven efficacy was carried out using electronic databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, SciFinder and PubMed. In all, about 46 species of different families with potent biological and pharmacological activities were reviewed. All the plants reviewed exhibited potent activity confirming their various traditional uses and their ability to treat prevalent diseases.
Part of the book: Pharmacognosy
The surge in antimicrobial resistance coupled with the decline in the antimicrobial drug pipeline calls for the discovery and development of new agents to tackle antibiotic resistance and prevent a return to a post-antibiotic era. Several factors account for resistance of microbes; some are natural and others are acquired. Natural selection, presence of efflux pumps, impermeable cell wall, biofilm formation and quorum sensing are some of the factors. Though it is difficult to outwit the pathogens, the discovery and development of compounds with pleiotropic modes or mechanisms of action different from the conventional drugs currently being used can help us tackle antimicrobial resistance. Natural products have been known to be a rich source of bioactive compounds with diverse structures and functional group chirality. Various reports indicate medicinal plants with antibacterial, anti-biofilm, efflux pump inhibition, wound healing effects or properties and others used for upper respiratory and urinary tract infections. There is an urgent need to research into natural products particularly plants for antimicrobial agents including antibacterial agents, anti-biofilm agents, antibacterial natural compounds and antibacterial chemicals. This chapter throws more light on such antimicrobials.