Numerical simulation of groundwater flow and solute transport in a dual-permeability karst aquifer is a challenging issue, since groundwater flow in karst conduit network can become non-darcian even turbulent flow. The discrete-continuum model is a relatively new modeling method, which accounts for turbulent and laminar flow in karst aquifer. MODFLOW-CFP (Conduit Flow Process) is compared to the MODFLOW, a numerical code based on Darcy law, to evaluate the accuracy in a sub-regional scale karst aquifer. MODFLOW-CFP is more accurate than the MODFLOW when comparing the head simulation results with field measurements. After that, the CFPv2 and UMT3D numerical models are applied in the WKP to establish a sub-regional scale model to simulate chloride transport processes in the last four decades, and to predict contamination development. Numerical simulation results indicate sprayfields are the major chloride source in the study region. Conduit networks significantly control solute transport and contaminant distribution in the study region. Chloride transports through conduits rapidly and spread to several large contamination plumes in a short period. Chloride concentration started to increase in 1980s due to the operation of sparyfield. Solute transport simulation results by discrete-continuum models are more accurate because of the precise description of conduit network.
Part of the book: Groundwater