The diagnosis of acute brain injury in the acute care setting is based on neurological examination and neuroimaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are limitations to both CT and MRI scanning. The lack of objective, noninvasive and readily accessible clinical tools to detect injury has left clinicians with uncertainty about how to best identify and treat these conditions. It is also very difficult for patients and their families who struggle to better understand the deficits they deal with on a daily basis. There have been many studies exploring many promising biomarkers during the last decade. Despite the large number of published studies there is still a lack of any Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved biomarkers for brain injury in adults and children. Given all of these researches, there is now an important need to validate and introduce them into the clinical setting. This chapter reviews commonly studied biomarkers for acute brain injury in humans, with an emphasis on traumatic brain injury and stroke.
Part of the book: Trauma, Tumors, Spine, Functional Neurosurgery