Water pollution demands emergency actions for better water resource management to respect the concept of sustainable development. The aim of the Water Framework Directive, as long-term water policy of the European Union, is to assure the good quality of surface waters. Each state from Europe has to identify all the river basins lying within their national territory and to assign them to individual river basin districts. In this respect, an effective integrated system and monitoring technology, analysing, interpreting data and utilizing the results to make decisions related to the water resources protection, were developed. The main objectives are focused on the expansion of monitoring activities and obtaining more detailed information on the state of surface waters. Specific recommended equipment which enables to perform the analysis of recommended water quality parameters should be placed on the monitoring stations of the Lower Danube Basin. Respectively, this lack of equipment provides a challenge in the development of effective methodologies for collection and analysis of water quality data. The main priority was the development of an integrated water catchment area management strategy and to build up the online continuous monitoring system. Some of the technical goals for continuous water monitoring were reached in Hungary and Romania and are presented here.
Part of the book: River Basin Management
This chapter aims a comprehensive presentation of the most common electrochemical sensors used in the real monitoring applications of air purity testing. Oxygen, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are gases, which can be accurately detected and measured. Too high or too low oxygen concentration levels make the air improper for breathing. Hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide are dangerous species; any leakage needs to be pinpointed. A calibrated network of sensors for monitoring gas detection makes it possible to easily locate the source of gas escape during indoor air monitoring. The air quality monitoring stations based on electrochemical sensors are nowadays used to determine the global pollution index of the atmospheric air, in order to prevent the risks toward the human health and damage of environment, especially in the highly populated and industrialized urban areas.
Part of the book: Electrochemical Sensors Technology