Grapevine is one of the most abundant crops worldwide, with varieties destined for fresh and dry consumption, as well as wine production. Unfortunately, grapevine plants are affected by both biotic and abiotic stresses, generating significant economic losses. These conditions can negatively impact grape cultivation at different stages: plant and berry development during pre- and post-harvest, production, fresh fruit processing and export, along with wine quality. Most of the grapevine varieties are susceptible to several pathogens and within this chapter, particular attention is given to fungi (Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator) and viruses, since they are a worldwide concern. Within the latter, special focus is given to the grapevine leafroll disease, a complex and destructive infection. On the other hand, abiotic stress is also relevant in grapevine, and in this chapter it will be exemplified by UV-B radiation and its impact on growth and fruit development, plant adaptive responses and its relationship with the quality of grape berries for winemaking. The main biotic and abiotic grapevine stress factors are reviewed in this chapter, considering a special focus on biotechnological approaches carried out in order to address them and minimize their detrimental consequences.
Part of the book: Grape and Wine Biotechnology
Vegetables and fruits have been a part of human diet since ancient times; nevertheless, as countries develop, its population’s feeding habits change and tend to have a diet poor in vegetables and fruits, with well-known consequences. Several food plant products with massive consumption and within the reach of the population are products such as artichoke, leek, hot chili pepper, coriander, kiwifruit, sweet orange, highbush blueberry, and maracuyá to name a few. They have many beneficial properties principally by its content of phytochemicals with high impact on human health, beyond nutritional support. The phytochemicals are bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic acid, and flavonoids, which contribute to antioxidant capacity and as a whole prevent chronic nontransmissible diseases such as: diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol in blood, cardiovascular risks, among others. This relationship between food plant for human consumption and its impacts on human health is discussed in this chapter, highlighting coriander and kiwifruit by its wide range of benefits.
Part of the book: Superfood and Functional Food
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most important commercial plants since its berries are used for wine production or consumed as fresh fruit or dry fruit. Many studies have focused on berry development and have pointed out the hormonal regulation on the three phases, from early development to maturity. Grapevine fruit has been classified as non-climacteric based on the low levels of ethylene present around véraison, although recent evidence has suggested a role for this hormone during grape berry ripening. The control of different physiological processes depends on a complex integration between environmental cues and endogenous factors, which is mediated by a phytohormone crosstalk. In this chapter, we will focus on phytohormones, their signaling pathways, and their association to berry development in V. vinifera; in particular, we will refer to auxins, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, ethylene, gibberellins, and cytokinins.
Part of the book: Phytohormones