miRNAs are sequences of 20–22 nucleotides that participate in the development, growth, and cell differentiation by the regulation of the mRNAs.Their possible participation in the development of degenerative diseases has been extensively investigated. Results show quantitative changes in miRNA transcription, to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this chapter, the dysregulation of microRNAs reported in the samples taken from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) animal model or ALS patients is analyzed. Moreover,their probable participation in the pathogenesis of the disease is also analyzed.
Part of the book: Update on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
The stem cells are part of the cells that belong to the stromal tissue. These cells remain in a quiescent state until they are activated by different factors, usually those generated by an alteration in the parenchymal tissue. These cells have characteristic membrane markers such as CD73, CD90, and CD105. Those are a receptor, which in response to their ligand induces strong changes in different metabolic pathways that lead to these cells, both to generate molecules with different activities and to leave their stationary phase to reproduce and even differentiate. This review describes the metabolic pathways dependent on these membrane markers and how they influence on parenchymal tissue and other stromal cells.
Part of the book: Stromal Cells