The frequency of melanoma doubles every 20 years. The early detection of malignant changes augments the therapy success. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) enables the noninvasive examination of skin tissue. To diminish the need for training and to improve diagnostic accuracy, computer-aided diagnostic systems are required. Two approaches are presented: a multiresolution analysis and an approach based on deep layer convolutional neural networks. For the diagnosis of the CLSM views, architectural structures such as micro-anatomic structures and cell nests are used as guidelines by the dermatologists. Features based on the wavelet transform enable an exploration of architectural structures at different spatial scales. The subjective diagnostic criteria are objectively reproduced. A tree-based machine-learning algorithm captures the decision structure explicitly and the decision steps are used as diagnostic rules. Deep layer neural networks require no a priori domain knowledge. They are capable of learning their own discriminatory features through the direct analysis of image data. However, deep layer neural networks require large amounts of processing power to learn. Therefore, modern neural network training is performed using graphics cards, which typically possess many hundreds of small, modestly powerful cores that calculate massively in parallel. Readers will learn how to apply multiresolution analysis and modern deep learning neural network techniques to medical image analysis problems.
Part of the book: Microscopy and Analysis