This chapter is the study of state estimators for robust navigation. Navigation of vehicles is a vast field with multiple decades of research. The main aim is to estimate position, linear velocity, and attitude (PVA) under all dynamics, motions, and conditions via data fusion. The state estimation problem will be considered from two different perspectives using the same kinematic model. First, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) will be reviewed, as an example of a stochastic approach; second, a recent nonlinear observer will be considered as a deterministic case. A comparative study of strapdown inertial navigation methods for estimating PVA of aerial vehicles fusing inertial sensors with global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based positioning will be presented. The focus will be on the loosely coupled integration methods and performance analysis to compare these methods in terms of their stability, robustness to vibrations, and disturbances in measurements.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Robotic Systems